In recent years, there has been significant interest in the utilization of natural materials for nanomaterials which impact a broad range of fields including tissue engineering, smart textiles, electronics, energy, coatings and more. Natural polymers such as silk, have received renewed interest due to their unique properties and potential applications. Silk fibers are traditionally 10-20 µm in diameter. This book researches the scientific implications of reducing the diameter to the nanoscale and adding nanofillers in the form of carbon nanotubes by the electrospinning process. The effects of post processing treatments on the physico-chemical properties of the nanofibers were also studied. Statistical analysis was applied to develop processing windows that can reproduce nanofibers less than 100 nm in diameter. The extensive experimental works outlined in this book are creative and commercially justifiable solutions to technical challenges relating to the development, fabrication, characterization, and optimization of next-generation advanced nanomaterials.
An important and growing part of the textile industry consists of the medical, healthcare and hygiene sectors. The extend of the growth is due to the constant improvements and innovations in both textile technology and medical procedures. Textile materials have been indispensable in the medical area. It has helped the medical world in every form and shape. Staple fibres are used for cleaning wounds, bandages for covering wounds, sutures are indispensable for surgery, plasters for joining bone fractures and knitted vascular grafts widely used to replace arteries. There has been a steady development in these textiles used for medical purposes, are more commonly termed as "medical textiles". Medical textiles are a major thrust area within the technical textile industry and the range of applications continue to bloom and increase its diversity with every new development. In the past decades, more and more efforts have been expanded on the development of new materials for the use as surgical sutures, especially absorbable sutures with satisfactory tensile strength and excellent biocompatibility. The degradation behaviour of suture materials is very important.
Braiding is the process of interlacing three or more threads or yarns in a diagonal direction to the product axis in order to obtain thicker, wider or stronger textiles or, in the case of overbraiding, in order to cover a profile. Braids are becoming the reinforcement of choice in composite manufacturing, and have found a range of technical applications in fields including medicine, candles, transport and aerospace. Building on the information provided in Prof. Kyosev's previous book, Braiding Technology for Textiles , this important title covers advanced technologies and new developments for the manufacture, applications and modelling of braided products.Part One covers the braiding of three-dimensional profiles, and includes a detailed overview of three-dimensional braiding technologies as well as chapters devoted to specific kinds of 3D braiding. Part Two addresses specialist braiding techniques and applications, and includes chapters reviewing the use of braids for medical textiles and candles. Part Three focuses on braiding techniques for ropes and Part Four reviews braiding for composites. The final part of the book considers modelling and simulation, and covers topics including overbraiding simulation, Finite Element Method (FEM) modelling and geometrical modelling.Covers advanced braiding techniques, technical applications, and modelling and simulation of braided textiles.Focused on the needs of the textile industry by offering suitable breadth and depth of coverage of a range of braiding manufacturing technology, applications and modelling techniques in a single volume.Written by an eminent team of authors, composed of leading scientists and developers in the field who have a wealth of relevant, first-hand experience in braiding, and edited by a high-profile editor who is an expert in his field.
Geo textiles have evolved as an integral part of the Technical Textile Industry. It adds value addition and has a great export potential. It has been used since ages, dating back to era of Egyptian pharaohs as a support material in mud made huts to the modern roadways, civil and military constructions. Today we see a lot of varieties of Geo textiles product for different applications with only one thing in common that is its worldwide demand is increasing. Our aim is to bring about awareness among the industry, further more to make a marketing and feasibility report for Geo textile products that should be produced in Pakistan. In-order to increase textile export portfolio of Pakistan Textile industry. Additionally enhancing the exposure of the Pakistani manufacturers to explore the vast value added market of such products.
Medical Textile is one of the most rapidly expanding sectors in the technical textile market. Medical Textiles are the products and constructions used for medical and biological applications and are used primarily for first aid, clinical and hygienic purposes. It consists of all those textile materials used in health and hygienic applications in both consumer and medical markets. Skin disease is due to allergy, variation in climate, wrong usage of chemicals, tablets, injection, this will create problem to human body. Most of the skin allergies are caused due to over secretion of histamine by mast cell. Normally mast cells are made by bone marrow. They are part of immune system. These cells are more in skin, lungs and intestine. Due to variation in atmospheric condition, histamine is secreted by mast cell that will cause blister in skin, lungs and intestine. In order to suppress this histamine, antihistamine medicines were used. In this book, a discussion was made on the application of the fabric treated with two different herbals which have antihistamine property to release antihistamine to prevent some skin diseases.
The industrial sector is very promising for the use of solar thermal technology, since it accounts for a large share of the total final energy consumption (e.g. 27 % in Germany in 2010) and it predominantly uses the consumed energy as thermal energy (74 % in Germany in 2010). In order to develop this area of application, it is necessary to understand which industrial sectors have the highest potential, which processes within these sectors are most suitable for the integration of solar heat as well as to quantify the possible contribution to the industrial heat demand. For this thesis, the industrial heat consumption in Germany is analyzed, which leads to the selection of the 11 most promising sectors within industry. These are Chemicals, Food and beverages, Motor vehicles, Paper, Fabricated metal, Machinery and equipment, Rubber and plastic, Electrical equipment, Textiles, Printing and Wood. The theoretical potential of solar heat for industrial processes below 300 °C in Germany adds up to 134 TWh per year, the technical potential (considering efficiency measures, limited roof area and a solar fraction) being 16 TWh per year or 3.4 % of the overall industrial heat demand.Solar thermal systems can achieve higher system yields in industrial applications compared to domestic ones. At the same time, systems can be more complex in industrial applications. In order to design and operate solar process heat systems efficiently and to exploit the large potential, possible faults of such systems and their impact have to be evaluated. In this thesis, an implemented solar process heat system is methodically analyzed based on measurements and simulations with a validated model. Several faults are identified and their influence, as well as the influence of a reduced load on the system yield is evaluated. The analysis shows that a reduced load is most influential. Further, the most important impact factors on the system performance are identified: the collector parameters (?0, a1) and load characteristics (mass flow, temperature). The design of solar process heat systems is in many cases very demanding, hence costly. This high effort is a major barrier for a further development of solar heat for industrial applications. The decision to install solar thermal systems is in most cases based on solar heat generation cost. Collector field and heat store size are the most important figures for the estimation of the overall cost of a solar thermal system. Therefore, a simple approach for dimensioning the collector field and heat store is developed in this thesis in order to enable manufacturers and planners on one hand and costumers on the other hand to make a decision in favor or against a solar process heat system. In addition to investment cost, the specific system yield, which is determined for selected process heat applications in this thesis, is necessary to calculate solar heat generation cost. Finally, indications on the necessary accuracy of the load profile are provided to help to reduce effort in the design phase.
The book deals with the physical and chemical modification of natural and synthetic fibres for technical applications. Natural fibres and synthetic fibres/ filaments are often inadequate to be used in technical textiles. The high level of moisture absorption of natural fibres, poor wettability by non-polar plastics, and insufficient adhesion between untreated fibres and the polymer matrix, result in poor properties in composites. Synthetic fibres often lack the required mechanical and thermal properties to be used for technical applications. The book will thus encompass methods to physically and chemically modify fibres for technical applications.
Electrospinning is from the academic as well as technical perspective presently the most versatile technique for the preparation of continuous nanofi bers obtained from numerous materials including polymers, metals, and ceramics. Shapes and properties of fibers can be tailored according to the demand of numerous applications including filtration, membranes, textiles, catalysis, reinforcement, or biomedicals. This book summarizes the state-of-the art in electrospinning with detailed coverage of the various techniques, material systems and their resulting fiber structures and properties, theoretical aspects and applications. Throughout the book, the current status of knowledge is introduced with a critical view on accomplishments and novel perspectives. An experimental section gives hands-on guidance to beginners and experts alike.
The book presents the latest developments in narrow fabrics and smart materials from research institutions, machinery building companies and producers of such products, presented during the International Week of Narrow and Smart Textiles in Spring 2018 in Mönchengladbach, Germany. It also demonstrates different applications of braided and woven fabrics. Braided and woven narrow products are produced using completely different techniques, but have a lot of similarities in their applications &#8211; they are used as belts, ropes and tubes in areas ranging from medical textiles, cables, technical and home applications to large-scale transport belts and long tubes for transporting oil from the bottom of the ocean.