In recent years, there has been significant interest in the utilization of natural materials for nanomaterials which impact a broad range of fields including tissue engineering, smart textiles, electronics, energy, coatings and more. Natural polymers such as silk, have received renewed interest due to their unique properties and potential applications. Silk fibers are traditionally 10-20 µm in diameter. This book researches the scientific implications of reducing the diameter to the nanoscale and adding nanofillers in the form of carbon nanotubes by the electrospinning process. The effects of post processing treatments on the physico-chemical properties of the nanofibers were also studied. Statistical analysis was applied to develop processing windows that can reproduce nanofibers less than 100 nm in diameter. The extensive experimental works outlined in this book are creative and commercially justifiable solutions to technical challenges relating to the development, fabrication, characterization, and optimization of next-generation advanced nanomaterials.
Designing is a task which requires a combination of technical knowledge, skill, training, patience and artistic imagination. Most of the designs made by man or available in nature have inherent symmetry in them. Considerable mathematical analysis is required to discover an order in such designs and encode them in mathematical descriptions. Moreover, such analysis is usually specific to a particular design (or a class of designs) and is difficult to generalize. Geometric modelling can be used as a design tool to avoid unnecessarily tedious or repetitive tasks. This allows the artist to work on the design idea rather than its implementation. The work presents a unified modelling scheme for artists, craftsmen and common users to facilitate user-defined and automatic generation of designs starting with the simple geometric primitives at the lowest level and creation, storage and retrieval of statically and dynamically symmetric patterns that can be used to generate design layouts. It has direct applications in the domain of art, metal engraving, designer furniture, textiles, jewelry, woodcarvings, wallpapers, tiles, flower vases, etc.
Please note that the content of this book primarily consists of articles available from Wikipedia or other free sources online. Vkhutemas (Russian: , acronym for - Vysshiye Khudozhestvenno-Tekhnicheskiye Masterskiye (Higher Art and Technical Studios)) was the Russian state art and technical school founded in 1920 in Moscow. The workshops were established by a decree from Vladimir Lenin with the intentions, in the words of the Soviet government, "to prepare master artists of the highest qualifications for industry, and builders and managers for professional-technical education." The school had 100 faculty members and an enrollment of 2,500 students. Vkhutemas was formed by a merger of two previous schools: the Moscow School of Painting, Sculpture and Architecture and the Stroganov School of Applied Arts. The workshops had artistic and industrial faculties, the art faculty taught courses in graphics, sculpture and architecture while the industrial faculty taught courses in printing, textiles, ceramics, woodworking, and metalworking.
Medical Textile is one of the most rapidly expanding sectors in the technical textile market. Medical Textiles are the products and constructions used for medical and biological applications and are used primarily for first aid, clinical and hygienic purposes. It consists of all those textile materials used in health and hygienic applications in both consumer and medical markets. Skin disease is due to allergy, variation in climate, wrong usage of chemicals, tablets, injection, this will create problem to human body. Most of the skin allergies are caused due to over secretion of histamine by mast cell. Normally mast cells are made by bone marrow. They are part of immune system. These cells are more in skin, lungs and intestine. Due to variation in atmospheric condition, histamine is secreted by mast cell that will cause blister in skin, lungs and intestine. In order to suppress this histamine, antihistamine medicines were used. In this book, a discussion was made on the application of the fabric treated with two different herbals which have antihistamine property to release antihistamine to prevent some skin diseases.
This study investigates the efficiency of manufacturing subsectors in the Zimbabwean economy. The study applied the panel data econometrics approach in the leading manufacturing subsectors from 1980-2005. The quantitative estimates using SFA shows that there are varying efficiencies across sub-sectors and through time. The log-likelihood test shows that there existed technical inefficiency in the production processes in the manufacturing sector. This shows that the industries could have improve their productive capacities with the same amount of inputs. The study shows that average technical efficiencies were falling since 1980 in the investigated sub-sectors. The highest efficiency scores were recorded in the canning and preservation of vegetables and fruits sub-sector which have an average of 98.1 percent efficiency level. The least efficient sectors are the textiles and footwear sectors which had averages of 32 percent and 33 percent efficient levels.
The industrial sector is very promising for the use of solar thermal technology, since it accounts for a large share of the total final energy consumption (e.g. 27 % in Germany in 2010) and it predominantly uses the consumed energy as thermal energy (74 % in Germany in 2010). In order to develop this area of application, it is necessary to understand which industrial sectors have the highest potential, which processes within these sectors are most suitable for the integration of solar heat as well as to quantify the possible contribution to the industrial heat demand. For this thesis, the industrial heat consumption in Germany is analyzed, which leads to the selection of the 11 most promising sectors within industry. These are Chemicals, Food and beverages, Motor vehicles, Paper, Fabricated metal, Machinery and equipment, Rubber and plastic, Electrical equipment, Textiles, Printing and Wood. The theoretical potential of solar heat for industrial processes below 300 °C in Germany adds up to 134 TWh per year, the technical potential (considering efficiency measures, limited roof area and a solar fraction) being 16 TWh per year or 3.4 % of the overall industrial heat demand.Solar thermal systems can achieve higher system yields in industrial applications compared to domestic ones. At the same time, systems can be more complex in industrial applications. In order to design and operate solar process heat systems efficiently and to exploit the large potential, possible faults of such systems and their impact have to be evaluated. In this thesis, an implemented solar process heat system is methodically analyzed based on measurements and simulations with a validated model. Several faults are identified and their influence, as well as the influence of a reduced load on the system yield is evaluated. The analysis shows that a reduced load is most influential. Further, the most important impact factors on the system performance are identified: the collector parameters (?0, a1) and load characteristics (mass flow, temperature). The design of solar process heat systems is in many cases very demanding, hence costly. This high effort is a major barrier for a further development of solar heat for industrial applications. The decision to install solar thermal systems is in most cases based on solar heat generation cost. Collector field and heat store size are the most important figures for the estimation of the overall cost of a solar thermal system. Therefore, a simple approach for dimensioning the collector field and heat store is developed in this thesis in order to enable manufacturers and planners on one hand and costumers on the other hand to make a decision in favor or against a solar process heat system. In addition to investment cost, the specific system yield, which is determined for selected process heat applications in this thesis, is necessary to calculate solar heat generation cost. Finally, indications on the necessary accuracy of the load profile are provided to help to reduce effort in the design phase.
Colloquium on„Integrated Best Available Wastewater Management in the Textile Sector“September 19, 2018at Max-Planck-Institut für Festkörperforschung Lecture Hall 2D5, Heisenbergstraße 1, 70569 Stuttgart-BüsnauScientific Head: Dr.-Ing. Harald Schönberger University of Stuttgart Institute for Sanitary Engineering, Water Quality and Solid Waste Management (ISWA)Apart from cotton cultivation and the production of dyestuffs and optical brighteners, textile finishing – also called textile wet processing – is one of the environmental hotspots. The dominating emission mass stream from textile finishing is wastewater as practically all inorganic and most of the organic (more than 90 %) chemical compounds are discharged with wastewater. Emissions to air, although not negligible, and with solid wastes are of significant lower relevance. In addition, in many parts of the globe, water availability and water scarcity respectively are of increasing concern triggering the need to avoid, reduce or recycle textile wastewater.Against this background the colloquium will contribute to the development of integrated best available wastewater management practices in the textile sector. This comprises the minimisation of water, energy and chemicals consumption by process optimisation (process- and production-integrated measures) and the careful selection of chemicals products. The latter means that the chemical products should be free of substances which are non-biodegradable or which are toxic or do have a negative impact on aquatic life.As textile wastewater pollution cannot be fully prevented at source, the colloquium also focusses on its advanced and effective treatment with special consideration of its recycling in case of limited water availability or scarcity.The programme covers the aforementioned aspects. Well-known speakers will present latest technologies and technical concepts to the audience from textile finishing industries, retailers and brands, techniques providers, textile associations and authorities from national, regional and local level, GIZ and representatives of the German Partnership for Sustainable Textiles.The colloquium is being organised by the “Forschungs- und Entwicklungsinstitut für Industrie- und Siedlungswasserwirtschaft sowie Abfallwirtschaft e.V. (FEI)” in cooperation with the Institute for Sanitary Engineering, Water Quality and Solid Waste Management (ISWA) of the University of Stuttgart and the Partnership for Sustainable Textiles.
This book analyzes how today's system of international trade law and international economic relations has evolved over the last six decades. Focusing on the major innovations that came with the inception of the World Trade Organization (WTO) with its various agreements in 1994, it also provides in-depth commentary on the intense debate over important matters that remain unsettled. Topics covered include the WTO dispute settlement mechanism, the General Agreement on Trade in Services (OATS), the Agreement on Trade-Related Investment Measures (TRIMS), intellectual property rights - the Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS), areas still covered by the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) 1947, the Most Favoured Nation (MFN) concept, special provisions relating to agriculture and textiles, sanitary and phytosanitary measures, technical barriers to trade, pre-shipment inspection, and import licensing procedures.The book would be an excellent resource for scholars as well as practitioners working in the field of international arbitration and trade laws.
The book is a collection of academic papers from a conference that focuses on significant issues, fundamental and applied research advances on a range of topics in the areas of textile engineering, apparel, fashion and design. Among others, the book will update the readers on recent research in technical and functional textiles, future trends and visions for textile, apparel and fashion, global business, marketing and management in textile and apparel, education and training in textile and apparel and design, fashion, footwear product and materials innovation.