This study investigates the efficiency of manufacturing subsectors in the Zimbabwean economy. The study applied the panel data econometrics approach in the leading manufacturing subsectors from 1980-2005. The quantitative estimates using SFA shows that there are varying efficiencies across sub-sectors and through time. The log-likelihood test shows that there existed technical inefficiency in the production processes in the manufacturing sector. This shows that the industries could have improve their productive capacities with the same amount of inputs. The study shows that average technical efficiencies were falling since 1980 in the investigated sub-sectors. The highest efficiency scores were recorded in the canning and preservation of vegetables and fruits sub-sector which have an average of 98.1 percent efficiency level. The least efficient sectors are the textiles and footwear sectors which had averages of 32 percent and 33 percent efficient levels.
Braiding is the process of interlacing three or more threads or yarns in a diagonal direction to the product axis in order to obtain thicker, wider or stronger textiles or, in the case of overbraiding, in order to cover a profile. Braids are becoming the reinforcement of choice in composite manufacturing, and have found a range of technical applications in fields including medicine, candles, transport and aerospace. Building on the information provided in Prof. Kyosev's previous book, Braiding Technology for Textiles , this important title covers advanced technologies and new developments for the manufacture, applications and modelling of braided products.Part One covers the braiding of three-dimensional profiles, and includes a detailed overview of three-dimensional braiding technologies as well as chapters devoted to specific kinds of 3D braiding. Part Two addresses specialist braiding techniques and applications, and includes chapters reviewing the use of braids for medical textiles and candles. Part Three focuses on braiding techniques for ropes and Part Four reviews braiding for composites. The final part of the book considers modelling and simulation, and covers topics including overbraiding simulation, Finite Element Method (FEM) modelling and geometrical modelling.Covers advanced braiding techniques, technical applications, and modelling and simulation of braided textiles.Focused on the needs of the textile industry by offering suitable breadth and depth of coverage of a range of braiding manufacturing technology, applications and modelling techniques in a single volume.Written by an eminent team of authors, composed of leading scientists and developers in the field who have a wealth of relevant, first-hand experience in braiding, and edited by a high-profile editor who is an expert in his field.
The technical importance of flexible composite structures needs no emphasis nor has there been any lack of material descriptive of their manufacture or properties. The starting points of such descriptions have invariably been from the viewpoint of the rubber industry and the presence of a suitable textile has been taken for granted, its strength properties indicated and the technological content confined to the manufacturing process within the rubber industry. An attempt is made here to work from the textile outwards. Industrial fabrics are far heavier than garment textiles, are not produced in the same bulk quantities and need to be specially constructed to provide the balance of properties which will combine with those of the rubber to give the final. product. The most important composite structure formed from textiles and rubber is, of course, the pneumatic tyre. It may therefore seem strange that no chapter deals with this. The reason is quite simple. To deal with the structure and design of the pneumatic tyre in a similar depth of detail as is done here for conveyor or power transmission belting, or hose, would require disproportionate space, in fact, a second volume equal in size to the present one. This book discusses from the textile viewpoint the various reinforced rubber structures used industrially with the exception of the tyre. These other uses of industrial fabrics can be discussed in adequate detail and cover the whole range of the technology involved in the space available in the one volume.
Textile Technology is a unique and readable introduction into the field of textile engineering. It is based on an elementary level course focusing on the manufacture (processes and machines) of yarn, fabric, knitwear, nonwovens, braids, reinforcing fabrics, and technical textiles, but also provides technicians and engineers in the textile industry with an up-to-date review of processes and equipment for textile manufacturing.The book covers all processing steps for the manufacturing of textiles, describing materials, processes and machines, finishing, making-up, and recycling. To provide a better understanding of the individual textile processes, each chapter ends with an example describing the respective processing steps for a specific textile product. In addition, current and future development trends are discussed.The second edition is brought up to date with extensive coverage of new developments, such as in the fields of testing, measurement, and simulation.Contents- Raw materials- Yarn production- Fabric production- Knitwear production- Nonwovens production- Braiding processes and machines- Noncrimp fabrics- Textile finishing- Clothing manufacture- Technical textiles- Textile testing- Disposal and recycling- Simulation
Currently, most of the textile industry and textile institutions are located in South Asia. The textile industry leads to the development of clothing from fibres, yarns, and fabrics. The industry is growing in this area as it has already been shifted from Europe and is being shifting from China. As the textile industry is growing, many new textile intuitions are being established to provide for quality textile education. This introductory level textbooks is geared towars them. This book will provide all necessary information from fibres to fabrics and their conversion to clothing. The importance of textiles in the current era along with the raw materials needed for the textiles are given. After that, it is explained how the yarn is made from fibres. Then the fabrics manufacturing, the printing and dyeing of textiles and the conversion of fabrics into the garments is discussed. Also, the testing of fibres, yarns and fabrics along with the description of technical textiles is mentioned. This book is beneficial for all readers who are going to start their career in textiles or are going to start the engineering degree in textiles. The present book is designed for the first year students (especially for the National Textile University Faisalabad) of textile engineering.
'Devoted entirely to textiles for interiors, Textiles for Residential and Commercial Interiors, 4th Edition, focuses on the most current fiber and fabric information including new fiber technology and nanofibers, the role of the interior designer in selecting textiles, and the environmental impact of textiles. The book includes in-depth coverage of household and institutional textiles, in addition to commercial and residential textiles for upholstered furniture, windows, walls, and floor coverings. Full-color line drawings and photographs illustrate fibers, yarns, fabrics, manufacturing equipment, coloring, finishings, and end products. Textiles for Residential and Commercial Interiors provides students with all of the technical information, aesthetic fundamentals, and practical knowledge they need to select textiles for every type of residential and commercial interior'--
Engineering textiles: Integrating the design and manufacture of textile products looks at design concepts from traditional to technical textiles and discuss engineering approaches to the process of manufacturing these products.
A comprehensive, accessible, up-to-date catalog of enzymes and their uses in modern manufacturing. Enzymes have long been used by industrial product makers as major catalysts to transform raw materials into end products. Now available in English for the first time, Industrial Enzymes and Their Applications is the only authoritative catalog of enzymes with in-depth coverage of their varied uses, the classes in which they are grouped, and which chemical reagents they have replaced on current mass production lines. The first section surveys general enzyme characteristics and discusses their microbiological origin, including pH and temperature dependence of the activity and stability of each enzyme. The next section then examines the most important industrial enzymes in use today&#8212; including carbohydrate-hydrolyz-ing enzymes, proteases, ester cleavage-fat-hydrolyzing enzymes, and immobilized enzymes. The last section is devoted to specific applications of technical enzymes in such areas as food processing, beverage production, animal nutrition, leather, and textiles. Industrial Enzymes and Their Applications offers instant access to a wealth of key enzyme data&#8212; an invaluable, wide-ranging resource for industrial chemists, biochemists, biochemical engineers, and students.
Three dimensional voluminous nonwovens are a valuable and new generation source to replace the less-recyclable and less environment friendly polyurethane foams with the fulfilment of various technical, functional, design and aesthetic requirements for automotive textiles. The book describes about various 3D voluminous nonwovens structures and is focused on vertical laid Wavemaker technology based nonwovens. In the case the manufacturing technique to produce Wavemaker nonwovens, effect of fiber fineness, structural parameters, process parameters and different type of feeding web structures on the various properties of the Wavemaker nonwovens for car seat and headliner cushioning materials are illustrated. The book also purposes the evolution of context aware application to determine what to test, how to test and the appropriate metrics to use.