Three dimensional voluminous nonwovens are a valuable and new generation source to replace the less-recyclable and less environment friendly polyurethane foams with the fulfilment of various technical, functional, design and aesthetic requirements for automotive textiles. The book describes about various 3D voluminous nonwovens structures and is focused on vertical laid Wavemaker technology based nonwovens. In the case the manufacturing technique to produce Wavemaker nonwovens, effect of fiber fineness, structural parameters, process parameters and different type of feeding web structures on the various properties of the Wavemaker nonwovens for car seat and headliner cushioning materials are illustrated. The book also purposes the evolution of context aware application to determine what to test, how to test and the appropriate metrics to use.
In recent years, there has been significant interest in the utilization of natural materials for nanomaterials which impact a broad range of fields including tissue engineering, smart textiles, electronics, energy, coatings and more. Natural polymers such as silk, have received renewed interest due to their unique properties and potential applications. Silk fibers are traditionally 10-20 µm in diameter. This book researches the scientific implications of reducing the diameter to the nanoscale and adding nanofillers in the form of carbon nanotubes by the electrospinning process. The effects of post processing treatments on the physico-chemical properties of the nanofibers were also studied. Statistical analysis was applied to develop processing windows that can reproduce nanofibers less than 100 nm in diameter. The extensive experimental works outlined in this book are creative and commercially justifiable solutions to technical challenges relating to the development, fabrication, characterization, and optimization of next-generation advanced nanomaterials.
The air-jet texturing process is by far the most versatile continuous yarn texturing method. Production is economical and a variety of yarns can be produced to meet the needs of apparel, household and technical textiles. To study the effect of blend proportion on the physical characteristics of dry and wet blended air-jet textured yarns, multi filament yarns (fdy) were used as feeder yarns for the production of blended textured yarns in different proportions under dry, wet and single component wet conditions.Those blended yarns were used as weft with constant warp of PV spun yarn on CIMMCO Auto loom. The yarns and fabrics manufactured were tested and analyzed for various characteristics. In wet texturising, Polyester/Nylon blended yarns exhibit good loop stability with high nylon proportion. Bulk of Polyester/Nylon blended air-jet textured yarns decreases with increase in nylon proportion in dry as well as wet texturising. In comparison to the wetting of single component, pre-wetting of all the component of the feeder yarn results in high loop frequency. Drape, crease recovery, abrasion resistance and tensile properties are better achievable with Nylon 6 rich fabrics.
The Conference Board of Canada defines innovation as a "process through which economic or social value is extracted from knowledge through the generation, development and implementation of ideas to produce new or improved products, processes and services." The Department of Trade and Industry, UK defines it as "the successful exploitation of new ideas". As far as India is concern, only small investment (0.9% of GDP) on R&D as compared to USA (2.7% of GDP) and China (2.08% of GDP). An illustration of the importance of new product development can be seen in the area of the TECHNICAL TEXTILES. Country's technical textiles market which is currently estimated at $14 billion is likely to reach a level of $32 billion by 2023( 20% growth per annum). However, this book is divided into four chapters. The first one deals with product development, second for design logic of textile products, third for simulation of specific properties or structures leading to design, fourth is for case studies related to product development. More than 20 case studies are are illustrated with reference in technical textiles to explore the possibilities of product development in technical textiles.
The technical importance of flexible composite structures needs no emphasis nor has there been any lack of material descriptive of their manufacture or properties. The starting points of such descriptions have invariably been from the viewpoint of the rubber industry and the presence of a suitable textile has been taken for granted, its strength properties indicated and the technological content confined to the manufacturing process within the rubber industry. An attempt is made here to work from the textile outwards. Industrial fabrics are far heavier than garment textiles, are not produced in the same bulk quantities and need to be specially constructed to provide the balance of properties which will combine with those of the rubber to give the final. product. The most important composite structure formed from textiles and rubber is, of course, the pneumatic tyre. It may therefore seem strange that no chapter deals with this. The reason is quite simple. To deal with the structure and design of the pneumatic tyre in a similar depth of detail as is done here for conveyor or power transmission belting, or hose, would require disproportionate space, in fact, a second volume equal in size to the present one. This book discusses from the textile viewpoint the various reinforced rubber structures used industrially with the exception of the tyre. These other uses of industrial fabrics can be discussed in adequate detail and cover the whole range of the technology involved in the space available in the one volume.
The industrial sector is very promising for the use of solar thermal technology, since it accounts for a large share of the total final energy consumption (e.g. 27 % in Germany in 2010) and it predominantly uses the consumed energy as thermal energy (74 % in Germany in 2010). In order to develop this area of application, it is necessary to understand which industrial sectors have the highest potential, which processes within these sectors are most suitable for the integration of solar heat as well as to quantify the possible contribution to the industrial heat demand. For this thesis, the industrial heat consumption in Germany is analyzed, which leads to the selection of the 11 most promising sectors within industry. These are Chemicals, Food and beverages, Motor vehicles, Paper, Fabricated metal, Machinery and equipment, Rubber and plastic, Electrical equipment, Textiles, Printing and Wood. The theoretical potential of solar heat for industrial processes below 300 °C in Germany adds up to 134 TWh per year, the technical potential (considering efficiency measures, limited roof area and a solar fraction) being 16 TWh per year or 3.4 % of the overall industrial heat demand.Solar thermal systems can achieve higher system yields in industrial applications compared to domestic ones. At the same time, systems can be more complex in industrial applications. In order to design and operate solar process heat systems efficiently and to exploit the large potential, possible faults of such systems and their impact have to be evaluated. In this thesis, an implemented solar process heat system is methodically analyzed based on measurements and simulations with a validated model. Several faults are identified and their influence, as well as the influence of a reduced load on the system yield is evaluated. The analysis shows that a reduced load is most influential. Further, the most important impact factors on the system performance are identified: the collector parameters (?0, a1) and load characteristics (mass flow, temperature). The design of solar process heat systems is in many cases very demanding, hence costly. This high effort is a major barrier for a further development of solar heat for industrial applications. The decision to install solar thermal systems is in most cases based on solar heat generation cost. Collector field and heat store size are the most important figures for the estimation of the overall cost of a solar thermal system. Therefore, a simple approach for dimensioning the collector field and heat store is developed in this thesis in order to enable manufacturers and planners on one hand and costumers on the other hand to make a decision in favor or against a solar process heat system. In addition to investment cost, the specific system yield, which is determined for selected process heat applications in this thesis, is necessary to calculate solar heat generation cost. Finally, indications on the necessary accuracy of the load profile are provided to help to reduce effort in the design phase.
The Conference Board of Canada defines innovation as a 'process through which economic or social value is extracted from knowledge through the generation, development and implementation of ideas to produce new or improved products, processes and services.' The Department of Trade and Industry, UK defines it as 'the successful exploitation of new ideas'. As far as India is concern, only small investment (0.9% of GDP) on R&D as compared to USA (2.7% of GDP) and China (2.08% of GDP). An illustration of the importance of new product development can be seen in the area of the TECHNICAL TEXTILES. Country's technical textiles market which is currently estimated at $14 billion is likely to reach a level of $32 billion by 2023( 20% growth per annum). However, this book is divided into four chapters. The first one deals with product development, second for design logic of textile products, third for simulation of specific properties or structures leading to design, fourth is for case studies related to product development. More than 20 case studies are are illustrated with reference in technical textiles to explore the possibilities of product development in technical textiles.
Engineering textiles: Integrating the design and manufacture of textile products looks at design concepts from traditional to technical textiles and discuss engineering approaches to the process of manufacturing these products.
The book provides a short introduction to the sol-gel process, principles in modification of the sols and technical details of the application on textiles, covering in particular the chemical content of the topic. New properties of textiles gained from nanosols are summarized and explained in a broad range, focusing on the mechanical and thermal stability, repellent properties, optical properties, antistatic coatings and bioactive coatings. An active discussion is held on the bioactive modifications, because this wide and interesting field offers a high potential for many new applications, e.g. in medicine. Besides basic research, this book will also provide examples on the transition of academic research to customer products.