The air-jet texturing process is by far the most versatile continuous yarn texturing method. Production is economical and a variety of yarns can be produced to meet the needs of apparel, household and technical textiles. To study the effect of blend proportion on the physical characteristics of dry and wet blended air-jet textured yarns, multi filament yarns (fdy) were used as feeder yarns for the production of blended textured yarns in different proportions under dry, wet and single component wet conditions.Those blended yarns were used as weft with constant warp of PV spun yarn on CIMMCO Auto loom. The yarns and fabrics manufactured were tested and analyzed for various characteristics. In wet texturising, Polyester/Nylon blended yarns exhibit good loop stability with high nylon proportion. Bulk of Polyester/Nylon blended air-jet textured yarns decreases with increase in nylon proportion in dry as well as wet texturising. In comparison to the wetting of single component, pre-wetting of all the component of the feeder yarn results in high loop frequency. Drape, crease recovery, abrasion resistance and tensile properties are better achievable with Nylon 6 rich fabrics.
This study investigates the efficiency of manufacturing subsectors in the Zimbabwean economy. The study applied the panel data econometrics approach in the leading manufacturing subsectors from 1980-2005. The quantitative estimates using SFA shows that there are varying efficiencies across sub-sectors and through time. The log-likelihood test shows that there existed technical inefficiency in the production processes in the manufacturing sector. This shows that the industries could have improve their productive capacities with the same amount of inputs. The study shows that average technical efficiencies were falling since 1980 in the investigated sub-sectors. The highest efficiency scores were recorded in the canning and preservation of vegetables and fruits sub-sector which have an average of 98.1 percent efficiency level. The least efficient sectors are the textiles and footwear sectors which had averages of 32 percent and 33 percent efficient levels.
Handcrafted Indian textiles, steeped in tradition, are the living heritage of the glory of India. The decade spanning 1980-1990 witnessed a renaissance in the promotion and revival of techniques, some of which were in danger of becoming extinct. Warps and wefts underwent a transformation, with assorted weaves being combined to produce 'new from the old'. The hundred and forty outstanding textiles represented in this book, were selected from fifteen hundred, especially commissioned from master weavers and craftsmen all over the country during the same decade. Displayed at the Visvakarma series of exhibitions, their wide-ranging vocabulary of design, technical skill and aesthetic brilliance brook no rivalry. Featured under pigment-painted, dye-painted, printed and woven techniques, the book showcases various regions of production. The historical legacy, source of inspiration, achievements and shortcomings of each category are summed up with an informal, though analytical discussion. Written and edited by renowned names in textile design, this book is, indeed, a treasure for both the textile aficionado and designer.
Colloquium on„Integrated Best Available Wastewater Management in the Textile Sector“September 19, 2018at Max-Planck-Institut für Festkörperforschung Lecture Hall 2D5, Heisenbergstraße 1, 70569 Stuttgart-BüsnauScientific Head: Dr.-Ing. Harald Schönberger University of Stuttgart Institute for Sanitary Engineering, Water Quality and Solid Waste Management (ISWA)Apart from cotton cultivation and the production of dyestuffs and optical brighteners, textile finishing – also called textile wet processing – is one of the environmental hotspots. The dominating emission mass stream from textile finishing is wastewater as practically all inorganic and most of the organic (more than 90 %) chemical compounds are discharged with wastewater. Emissions to air, although not negligible, and with solid wastes are of significant lower relevance. In addition, in many parts of the globe, water availability and water scarcity respectively are of increasing concern triggering the need to avoid, reduce or recycle textile wastewater.Against this background the colloquium will contribute to the development of integrated best available wastewater management practices in the textile sector. This comprises the minimisation of water, energy and chemicals consumption by process optimisation (process- and production-integrated measures) and the careful selection of chemicals products. The latter means that the chemical products should be free of substances which are non-biodegradable or which are toxic or do have a negative impact on aquatic life.As textile wastewater pollution cannot be fully prevented at source, the colloquium also focusses on its advanced and effective treatment with special consideration of its recycling in case of limited water availability or scarcity.The programme covers the aforementioned aspects. Well-known speakers will present latest technologies and technical concepts to the audience from textile finishing industries, retailers and brands, techniques providers, textile associations and authorities from national, regional and local level, GIZ and representatives of the German Partnership for Sustainable Textiles.The colloquium is being organised by the “Forschungs- und Entwicklungsinstitut für Industrie- und Siedlungswasserwirtschaft sowie Abfallwirtschaft e.V. (FEI)” in cooperation with the Institute for Sanitary Engineering, Water Quality and Solid Waste Management (ISWA) of the University of Stuttgart and the Partnership for Sustainable Textiles.
Chemistry For Textile Students; A Manual Suitable For Technical Students In The Textile And Dyeing Industries, By NORMAN BLAND. PREFACE. The present time, being one of reconstruction, is an opportune moment for the presentation of this work, as it is, we believe, the first attempt to put forward a fairly compIetecourse on Chemistry for Textile Students suitable for the large and growing number of students who are taking up the technical study d textile industries from the truly scientific standpoint. It is a noteworthy feature of the last Census of Production, published in 1907, that, if we omit coal mining, whilst the cotton and woollen industries occupy respectively the first and fourth positions among the nine leading industries of the country as regards number of people employed, yet these industrics employ a smaller percentage of well-trained technologists than any of the others. With one exception, the productivity, or net putput in value per head of persons empIoyed, is less in the case of textile industries, apart from chemistry and dyeing, than that of the other great industries of the country, and this is no doubt largely due to the small percentage of well-trained technologists employed. Apart from the branches of bleaching and dyeing, it is only in very recent years that it has been realised, and only then by the most enlightened employers, that chemistry and physics play a most important part in the various operations used in the production of yarns and finished pieces. Recently, however, it has been recognised that Germany, in pre-W-ar times, Pas getting far ahead of us, principally through the,direct application of the sciences of chemistry, physics, and engineering to the procksses of nlanufactue of textiles. Iarge manufacturers are now beginning to realise that specially trained textile-chemists and textile-engineers must be engaged for special research work, if progress is to be made which wi1l enable us to keep pace with the competition of other great natons of the world. Germany was setting the pace in prewar times, nvhilst our manufacturers were resting largeIy on the laurels of the past, with the result that certain branches of our great textile industry were fast passing to the continent but in the near future other great nations of the world will have profited by the experience of Germany, and, if we are to maintain the traditions of the past, me must bring the sciences of chemistry and physics to bear to a greater degree on the study of textiles. It is a necessary part of the training of the textile technologist, who will late be engaged in the production of yarns and finished articles, that he should have received a thorough grounding in the sciences of chemistry and physics.
A comprehensive, accessible, up-to-date catalog of enzymes and their uses in modern manufacturing. Enzymes have long been used by industrial product makers as major catalysts to transform raw materials into end products. Now available in English for the first time, Industrial Enzymes and Their Applications is the only authoritative catalog of enzymes with in-depth coverage of their varied uses, the classes in which they are grouped, and which chemical reagents they have replaced on current mass production lines. The first section surveys general enzyme characteristics and discusses their microbiological origin, including pH and temperature dependence of the activity and stability of each enzyme. The next section then examines the most important industrial enzymes in use today&#8212; including carbohydrate-hydrolyz-ing enzymes, proteases, ester cleavage-fat-hydrolyzing enzymes, and immobilized enzymes. The last section is devoted to specific applications of technical enzymes in such areas as food processing, beverage production, animal nutrition, leather, and textiles. Industrial Enzymes and Their Applications offers instant access to a wealth of key enzyme data&#8212; an invaluable, wide-ranging resource for industrial chemists, biochemists, biochemical engineers, and students.
This comprehensive survey of textiles from every region of the Indian subcontinent runs the gamut of commercial, tribal and folk textiles. The authors first place them in cultural context by examining the history, materials and various techniques &#8211; weaving, dyeing, printing and painting. They then give a detailed region-by-region account of traditional textile production, including chapters on Pakistan, Bangladesh and Sri Lanka. A dazzling array of images provides an unsurpassed visual account of the textiles, while a detailed reference section with further reading, museums and information on technical terms completes this essential guide.
Plastics offer a variety of environmental benefits. However, their production, applications, and disposal present many environmental concerns. Plastics and the Environment provides state-of-the-art technical and research information on the complex relationship between the plastic and polymer industry and the environment, focusing on the sustainability, environmental impact, and cost--benefit tradeoffs associated with different technologies. Bringing together the field's leading researchers, Anthony Andrady's innovative collection not only covers how plastics affect the environment, but also how environmental factors affect plastics. The relative benefits of recycling, resource recovery, and energy recovery are also discussed in detail. The first of the book's four sections represents a basic introduction to the key subject matter of plastics and the environment; the second explores several pertinent applications of plastics with environmental implications-packaging, paints and coatings, textiles, and agricultural film use. The third section discusses the behavior of plastics in some of the environments in which they are typically used, such as the outdoors, in biotic environments, or in fires. The final section consists of chapters on recycling and thermal treatment of plastics waste. Chapters include: * Commodity Polymers * Plastics in Transportation * Biodegradation of Common Polymers * Thermal Treatment of Polymer Waste * Incineration of Plastics The contributors also focus on the effectiveness of recent technologies in mitigating environmental impacts, particularly those for managing plastics in the solid waste stream. Plastic and design engineers, polymer chemists, material scientists, and ecologists will find Plastics and the Environment to be a vital resource to this critical industry.
'The Handbook of sustainable textile production' is a compilation of technical, economic, and environmental data from thetextile production chain. The book defines the principles of sustainability and its use in legislation and industry before going on to investigate the impact of textiles throughout the supply chain, starting with the raw fiber through to fabric production, consumption and disposal. It examines textile process technology and methods for specifying quality and functions in textile products in order to reduce textile waste and improve sustainability. The book investigates the series of Life Cycle Assessments (LCAs) carried out in the European textile industry. These studies comprise a range of processes from cotton growing, spinning and weaving to the recycling of textiles. The book contains a discussion on sustainable textiles from a product development and marketing perspective.