This study investigates the efficiency of manufacturing subsectors in the Zimbabwean economy. The study applied the panel data econometrics approach in the leading manufacturing subsectors from 1980-2005. The quantitative estimates using SFA shows that there are varying efficiencies across sub-sectors and through time. The log-likelihood test shows that there existed technical inefficiency in the production processes in the manufacturing sector. This shows that the industries could have improve their productive capacities with the same amount of inputs. The study shows that average technical efficiencies were falling since 1980 in the investigated sub-sectors. The highest efficiency scores were recorded in the canning and preservation of vegetables and fruits sub-sector which have an average of 98.1 percent efficiency level. The least efficient sectors are the textiles and footwear sectors which had averages of 32 percent and 33 percent efficient levels.
'Panipat' one of the Historically famous city is otherwise known as the city of Hand looms in India. The jacquard woven home furnishing textiles of this city are world famous. The designing procedure followed by the local designers are based on the compound tie-up principle which reduces the physical labor of the designers during graphing but it needs more mental work. The various woven textile products of the city with their technical specifications, the details of instruments, loom arrangement as well as the designing procedure followed for jacquard woven textiles have been discussed lucidly.
Good product designs merge materials, technology and hardware into a unified user experience, one where the technology recedes into the background and people benefit from the capabilities and experiences available. By focusing on functional gain, critical awareness and emotive connection, even the most multifaceted and complex technology can be made to feel straightforward and become an integral part of daily life. Researchers, designers and developers must understand how to progress or appropriate the right technical and human knowledge to inform their innovations. The 1st International Smart Design conference provides a timely forum and brings together researchers and practitioners to discuss issues, identify challenges and future directions, and share their R&D findings and experiences in the areas of design, materials and technology.This proceedings of the 1 st Smart Design conference held at Nottingham Trent University in November 2011 includes summaries of the talks given on topics ranging from intelligent textiles design to pharmaceutical packaging to the impact of social and emotional factors on design choices with the aim of informing and inspiring future application and development of smart design.
The technical importance of flexible composite structures needs no emphasis nor has there been any lack of material descriptive of their manufacture or properties. The starting points of such descriptions have invariably been from the viewpoint of the rubber industry and the presence of a suitable textile has been taken for granted, its strength properties indicated and the technological content confined to the manufacturing process within the rubber industry. An attempt is made here to work from the textile outwards. Industrial fabrics are far heavier than garment textiles, are not produced in the same bulk quantities and need to be specially constructed to provide the balance of properties which will combine with those of the rubber to give the final. product. The most important composite structure formed from textiles and rubber is, of course, the pneumatic tyre. It may therefore seem strange that no chapter deals with this. The reason is quite simple. To deal with the structure and design of the pneumatic tyre in a similar depth of detail as is done here for conveyor or power transmission belting, or hose, would require disproportionate space, in fact, a second volume equal in size to the present one. This book discusses from the textile viewpoint the various reinforced rubber structures used industrially with the exception of the tyre. These other uses of industrial fabrics can be discussed in adequate detail and cover the whole range of the technology involved in the space available in the one volume.
The industrial sector is very promising for the use of solar thermal technology, since it accounts for a large share of the total final energy consumption (e.g. 27 % in Germany in 2010) and it predominantly uses the consumed energy as thermal energy (74 % in Germany in 2010). In order to develop this area of application, it is necessary to understand which industrial sectors have the highest potential, which processes within these sectors are most suitable for the integration of solar heat as well as to quantify the possible contribution to the industrial heat demand. For this thesis, the industrial heat consumption in Germany is analyzed, which leads to the selection of the 11 most promising sectors within industry. These are Chemicals, Food and beverages, Motor vehicles, Paper, Fabricated metal, Machinery and equipment, Rubber and plastic, Electrical equipment, Textiles, Printing and Wood. The theoretical potential of solar heat for industrial processes below 300 °C in Germany adds up to 134 TWh per year, the technical potential (considering efficiency measures, limited roof area and a solar fraction) being 16 TWh per year or 3.4 % of the overall industrial heat demand.Solar thermal systems can achieve higher system yields in industrial applications compared to domestic ones. At the same time, systems can be more complex in industrial applications. In order to design and operate solar process heat systems efficiently and to exploit the large potential, possible faults of such systems and their impact have to be evaluated. In this thesis, an implemented solar process heat system is methodically analyzed based on measurements and simulations with a validated model. Several faults are identified and their influence, as well as the influence of a reduced load on the system yield is evaluated. The analysis shows that a reduced load is most influential. Further, the most important impact factors on the system performance are identified: the collector parameters (?0, a1) and load characteristics (mass flow, temperature). The design of solar process heat systems is in many cases very demanding, hence costly. This high effort is a major barrier for a further development of solar heat for industrial applications. The decision to install solar thermal systems is in most cases based on solar heat generation cost. Collector field and heat store size are the most important figures for the estimation of the overall cost of a solar thermal system. Therefore, a simple approach for dimensioning the collector field and heat store is developed in this thesis in order to enable manufacturers and planners on one hand and costumers on the other hand to make a decision in favor or against a solar process heat system. In addition to investment cost, the specific system yield, which is determined for selected process heat applications in this thesis, is necessary to calculate solar heat generation cost. Finally, indications on the necessary accuracy of the load profile are provided to help to reduce effort in the design phase.
Handcrafted Indian textiles, steeped in tradition, are the living heritage of the glory of India. The decade spanning 1980-1990 witnessed a renaissance in the promotion and revival of techniques, some of which were in danger of becoming extinct. Warps and wefts underwent a transformation, with assorted weaves being combined to produce 'new from the old'. The hundred and forty outstanding textiles represented in this book, were selected from fifteen hundred, especially commissioned from master weavers and craftsmen all over the country during the same decade. Displayed at the Visvakarma series of exhibitions, their wide-ranging vocabulary of design, technical skill and aesthetic brilliance brook no rivalry. Featured under pigment-painted, dye-painted, printed and woven techniques, the book showcases various regions of production. The historical legacy, source of inspiration, achievements and shortcomings of each category are summed up with an informal, though analytical discussion. Written and edited by renowned names in textile design, this book is, indeed, a treasure for both the textile aficionado and designer.
Currently, most of the textile industry and textile institutions are located in South Asia. The textile industry leads to the development of clothing from fibres, yarns, and fabrics. The industry is growing in this area as it has already been shifted from Europe and is being shifting from China. As the textile industry is growing, many new textile intuitions are being established to provide for quality textile education. This introductory level textbooks is geared towars them. This book will provide all necessary information from fibres to fabrics and their conversion to clothing. The importance of textiles in the current era along with the raw materials needed for the textiles are given. After that, it is explained how the yarn is made from fibres. Then the fabrics manufacturing, the printing and dyeing of textiles and the conversion of fabrics into the garments is discussed. Also, the testing of fibres, yarns and fabrics along with the description of technical textiles is mentioned. This book is beneficial for all readers who are going to start their career in textiles or are going to start the engineering degree in textiles. The present book is designed for the first year students (especially for the National Textile University Faisalabad) of textile engineering.
Electrospinning is from the academic as well as technical perspective presently the most versatile technique for the preparation of continuous nanofi bers obtained from numerous materials including polymers, metals, and ceramics. Shapes and properties of fibers can be tailored according to the demand of numerous applications including filtration, membranes, textiles, catalysis, reinforcement, or biomedicals. This book summarizes the state-of-the art in electrospinning with detailed coverage of the various techniques, material systems and their resulting fiber structures and properties, theoretical aspects and applications. Throughout the book, the current status of knowledge is introduced with a critical view on accomplishments and novel perspectives. An experimental section gives hands-on guidance to beginners and experts alike.
First published in1906, this book contains a classic guide to textiles, dealing specifically with various different fabrics and how they should be prepared and dyed. Written in simple, clear language and full of helpful illustrations and diagrams, 'Textile Fabrics and Their Preparation for Dyeing' is perfect for textile novices and DIY enthusiasts, and it would make for a wonderful addition to collections of related literature. Paul Nooncree Hasluck (1854 - 1916) was an Australian engineer and editor. He was a master of technical writing and father of the 'do-it-yourself' book, producing many books on subjects including engineering, handicrafts, woodwork, and more. Other notable works by this author include: 'Treatise on the Tools Employed in the Art of Turning' (1881), 'The Watch-Jobber's Handy Book' (1887), and 'Screw-Threads and Methods of Producing Them' (1887). Many vintage books such as this are increasingly scarce and expensive. It is with this in mind that we are republishing this volume now in an affordable, modern, high-quality edition complete with a specially-commissioned new biography of the author.